Simplicillium W. Gams & Zare, Nova Hedwigia 73(1-2): 38 (2001)
Sordariomycetes, Hypocreomycetidae, Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae
Index Fungorum number: IF 28528; 21 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2021), 21 species with sequence data.
Hyperparasitic on rusts or parasitic on nematodes or occurring in soil. Asexual morph: Mycelium thin, hyaline, septate, branched, smooth-walled. Phialides arising from prostrate aerial hyphae or rope-like and flask-shaped synnemata, typically solitary, rarely in whorls of 2–3, gradually tapering towards the apex, elongate, slender, smooth-walled, phialidic. Conidia hyaline, oval, spindle-shaped, cylindrical, subglobose to ellipsoidal, fusoid to filiform, straight to curved, smooth-walled. Conidia commonly form in small globose heads, sometimes in branched, unbranched, zigzag or imbricate chains, occasionally in sympodial proliferation with cylindrical conidium-bearing denticles. Colonies of species in this genus are usually fast growing, reaching 10–38 mm within 10 days on PDA, white, reverse brownish-cream to pale yellow, margin entire, cottony, fluffy or floccose. Some species produce yellow or orange pigment. Crystals are commonly present in the agar. Sexual morph: Torrubiella (Wei et al. 2019).
Type species: Simplicillium lanosoniveum (J.F.H. Beyma) Zare & W. Gams, Nova Hedwigia
73(1–2): 39 (2001)
Notes: Simplicillium was introduced by Zare & Gams (2001) to accommodate S. lanosoniveum, S. lamellicola, S. obclavatum and S. wallacei. However, S. wallacei has been excluded from this genus to Lecanicillium on the basis of phylogenetic analysis (Zare & Gams 2008). Species of Simplicillium have a broad spectrum of hosts and phylogenetically are monophyletic within Cordycipitaceae (Wang et al. 2020).
Simplicillium formicae D.P. Wei & K.D. Hyde
Wang YB, Wang Y, Fan Q, Duan DE, Zhang GD, Dai RQ et al. 2020 – Multigene phylogeny of the family Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales): new taxa and the new systematic position of the Chinese cordycipitoid fungus Paecilomyces hepiali. Fungal Diversity 103(1): 1–46.
Wei DP, Wanasinghe DN, Hyde KD, Mortimer PE, Xu J, Xiao YP et al. 2019 – The genus Simplicillium. MycoKeys 60:69.
Zare R, Gams W. 2001 – A revision of Verticillium section Prostrata. IV. The genera Lecanicillium and Simplicillium gen. nov. Nova Hedwigia 73: 1–50.
Zare R, Gams W. 2008 – A revision of the Verticillium fungicola species complex and its affinity with the genus Lecanicillium. Mycological Research 112(7): 811–824
Recent SpeciesSamsoniella hepiali